Sierra Leone is bounded for the north-west, north west and north-east by simply the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Sea. It has a great area of twenty seven, 925 square kilometers. The colony involving Sierra Leone originated in the sale plus cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of your piece associated with land intended as a home for African settlers who have been waifs working in london and even later it has been used as the settlement for separated African slaves. Typically the hinterland was reported a British Protectorate on 21st September, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence about 27th April, 61 and became some sort of Republic in the year of 1971. Education is presented by both non-public and state-sponsored colleges. The current method of education is definitely 6-3-4-4 (that is six years Primary school, 36 months Junior Secondary School, 4 years Senior Extra School and 4 many years tertiary/higher education. This specific system is associated by non- official education.
CONCEPT REGARDING EDUCATION AND LEARNING
Education will be frequently used in typically the sense of coaching in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or perhaps domestic science space and consists mostly within the imparting by simply the teacher, plus the acquisition simply by pupils, of data and mental while well as handbook skills. A larger meaning than instruction is that associated with schooling. In other words all that goes upon inside the school since part of the particular pupil’s life presently there. It provides, among various other things, relationship involving pupils and instructors, pupils and learners both in plus outside the school. M. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter what helps to form the human getting; to make the individual what he or she is or hinder him from getting what he or she is not necessarily is part of their education. Implicitly education is lifelong plus ubiquitous; it’s the quantity total of almost all influences which get to make an individual what they are, from birth to passing away. It includes the home, our neighbors, and the street among other folks.
Education is in order to some extent some sort of deliberate planned process devised and performed by the educator using the purpose involving imbuing the spanish student with certain info, skills, of brain and body because well as ways of behavior considered desirable. In portion it is the learner’s very own respond to the atmosphere in which he or she lives. Education offers three focal items: the individual/person upon whom the educator’s influences are brought to bear; the particular society or community to which he belongs; and typically the whole context of reality within which in turn the individual plus society play their particular part. Man is usually a social monster; he grows being a person through typically the impact of personality on personality; and even even for his basic physical needs he depend upon which assist and cooperation involving his fellow men and women. Without society and typically the mutual support in addition to enrichment of encounters which it offers world is impossible in addition to the life of man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. inch
One of the particular fundamental facts associated with human existence is definitely the tension involving the pull of the past and the particular forward urge into the future, in between stability and transformation, tradition and advancement. For effective residing, man has to have a circle of security, a good area of established habits and romantic relationship which forms dependable relationships. This will be also true associated with society. For its effective functioning presently there must be an underlying continuity of customs and outlook which often preserves its id as a society and safeguards it from the disruptive results of change. Modification must be forever and not fixed but this alter in turn need to be controlled by the basic traditions of society. That is tradition which provides a nation it is character and distinctiveness as a community. The conservation of tradition therefore is usually obviously crucial.
This has been recognized from time immemorial that the preservation of traditional education and learning has an essential part to play in the advancement the child. The children more recently are the adults of the next day; they must be trained therefore, to get and perpetuate the particular beliefs and settings of life odd to the particular society to which often they belong. For every society gets the desire to protect itself not only physically but as local community consciously sharing specific aims, ideals plus patterns of conduct. This type of education is certainly not necessarily formal inside schools by way of class instruction but that effected indirectly by means of the family in addition to with the impact about the individual of social influences and even customs which typically the child cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate services of initiation concerning feats of endurance in which young guys and women should prove themselves worth the community. The particular ultimate goal was basically to produce someone who was honest, respectful, qualified, cooperative, and which could conform to the social order regarding the day. Since Aristotle once explained “the constitution associated with a state will certainly suffer if schooling is neglected. The particular citizens of some sort of state should always be educated to suit the constitution of the state. The type of character best suited to a metabolism is the influence which continues to be able to sustain this it is also the particular state force which in turn originally created it” (p. I).
fue provides both an innovative and conservation function within society; it is an effective means of preserving a society’s traditions, if not tradition. In the past the characteristics and needs associated with society played a vital part in determining the size of education. Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once had written in his guide, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil community the academic system will are likely to reflect the social pattern, whilst social uneasiness plus instability create opportunity for using education and learning as an device of social change”(p. 7). A comparable view was discussed by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through training society can produce its purposes, can organize its personal means and resources and thus preserve itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes in order to move. Education appearance both towards the previous and the future; inevitably it demonstrates the traditions plus character of society. Traditional education may be used to prepare for modifications in society plus anticipate preventing adjustments or the effects of changes in community.
Traditional education conserves and hands in the customs and even ways of life which constitute the character of a society and maintains the unity. It likewise helps society to interpret its capabilities in new ways in order to meet the troubles of change, seeking ways or outlines of development that are consistent with typically the traditions and persuits and will as well raise society to some more complete completion of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Background reveals that right now there were no official schools where young children were educated throughout Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies were viewed like institutions to coach kids. They were bush schools. And typically the education these bush schools provided has been informal. Children which went through these magic formula societies were deemed effective at carrying out and about their civic tasks. They became older people and can get married and start lifestyle. They considered by themselves as one family. Inside of other words each Secret Societies create a sense of comradeship and unity amongst members irrespective of family, clan or even ethnic affiliation. This was therefore regarded as that children who had not been through these secret communities were not completely matured.
The Poro Secret Society will be for boys. Typically the spiritual head involving the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen only with the older graduates or even members. The physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the activities with the establishment. The senior course instructors are the Pa Kashis, who generally teach and offer instructions to additional initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function as professors to the starts while the Kachemas would be the scaring tones. They scare the women and young children alike alongside the new initiates. The Rakas are the charge boys carrying text messages around. The Yambas are the mind boys. The Bomos are definitely the senior prefects while the Sayboms are the prefects; and the monitors would be the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in the Secret Poro Rose bush. The subjects taught include Creative Useful Arts, Performing Arts, Practical Agriculture, Treatments i. e. use of local herbs for the treatment of various ailments), warfare plus other skills. Found in Creative Practical Martial arts initiates are educated how to help to make fishing nets, containers, mats, and making wood and cleansing soap stones into distinct objects such as animals and individuals; in Performing Disciplines initiates are trained singing, dancing and even the use associated with Poro musical instruments. In Practical Farming initiates practice gardening. Boys are trained to deal with hardship with no complaint and develop used to it. Thus these are taken to be able to the farms associated with their teachers and even elders to do the job on pro bono basis. However throughout the harvest time of year initiates could move through these farms getting whatever they need and eat without being questioned simply by farm owners. Starts are taught to respect elders and even use of pistols to kill animals. In an identical vein initiates are taught how to use guns inside fighting in security of their areas. Other skills initiates are taught contain making fish barriers, fishing and camping net, and basketry. Inside the use involving herbs initiates shell out money (some openly given) for treatment various sicknesses and with protection against adversaries, evil spirits and snake bites. Starts who want to cause harm to others applying herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine concerned. Over all starts are taught some sort of new Language spoken only by members called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning We are talking to a person; fonka bonomi which means Talk to me. The use of this latest Language makes participants very proud plus feel different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with fresh names such because Lamp, Langba and even Kolerr. A graduating ceremony climaxes the particular event.